Dog training is a process in which the trainer or owner teaches his or her dog to perform some actions in response to several commands. Common training includes commands like “lie,” “sit,” “down,” etc. There are different methods available for training . Dogs are being used in military, law enforcements, for rescue, assistance, hunting, search operations, entertainments, protection, etc.
Wild dogs have some abilities because they live as pack animals. The training and learning capabilities also depend on breeds. The categories for dog training are mentioned below.
1 – Basic dog training
- Basic training classes
- Advanced training classes
- Individual training
2 – Communicating with a dog
3 – Understanding your dog
4 – Reward or punishment
- Rewards or treats
5 – Tricks for dogs
6 – Specialized dog training
- Guard animals
Basic Dog training
The fundamental to every dog training is that you must not apply the usual human standards of society. You must teach them at their level, so the hardest part in dog training is communication. The best approach would be “ Reward desired behavior,” this way you can correct their mistakes and reward them for their obedience.
Basic training contains different commands, for example Sit, Recall, Stay ( Come, “in” or “here” ), Down, heel, close ( loose walking ), up ( stand without jump ). The “ Corrections” are some forms of punishment, it can be mental ( not giving a reward) or physical ( no treats ). The negative corrections must only be done in case of disobedience, and positive rewards should be given for positive behaviors or for repetitions of those behaviors.
There are also many professional trainers available, who are teaching dog owners. They can take classes for dog training. You can also teach these trainings to puppies but only after completion of their vaccination.
Advanced Dog training classes
This kind of Dog training is of advance level and complex. This training is only given to dogs that have completed their basic dog training levels or equivalents level of adult training.
Individual dog training
This kind of training is given to dog, who behaves aggressively or negatively in a group environment or in certain situations. This kind of training is not suitable for groups. There are also training for puppies; these training mostly contain meeting and greeting commands for socializing purposes.
Communicating with dog
A handler should understand, what his or her dog is trying to say. The dog has the ability to signal that he’s happy, excited, confused, nervous etc.
According to a theory, there are 4 messages that a trainer can convey to his dog,
( KGS ) Keep going signal :
Correct behavior, it means continue and you’ll earn the reward.
Release or reward marker :
Correct behavior, You’ve earned the reward.
Punishment marker :
Incorrect behavior. You’ve earned punishment.
(NRM ) No reward marker :
Incorrect behavior, it means to try something else.
By using words and signals consistently, the dog will learn to understand those signals more effectively.
“Reward maker” term isn’t the same as Reward, it’s just a signal to tell a dog that he or she has earned a reward. You can use anything as a Reward, it can be a play, treat, praise or something else that dog finds rewarding. If you fail to Reward your dog after “ Reward maker” then dog training will be a difficult task.
You can teach the meaning of above-mentioned signals by repeating them again and again during dog training, this way the dog will form some associations with signals, and he will consider the “ Punishment maker” as a punishment. You can communicate these messages non-verbally or verbally. These days dog trainers are using mechanical clicker in dog training as a reward maker ( words “good” or “yes” ). “No” word is used as punishment maker. A common NRM ( No reward marker ) is “Whoops”. Repeated syllables ( “g-g-g-g” and “goooood”) are common KGS ( Keep going signal ).
Trainers also use body language and hand signals during dog training. However, most the most way to communicate with a dog is human voice.Dog can’t generalize the commands, it means a command that is working indoors might not work out-doors. You need to teach the command in different environments. This way way, dog will be able to understand the command completely.
Understanding Dog Training
Dog training takes patience and time. The Canine dogs can understand the commands quickly. The dog uses different senses ( odors, sounds, sights ) during the dog training for understanding different commands.
For example, when you say “down” there will be a set of hand signals and tones. When the dog experience these things repeatedly, he will obtain a muscle memory and the action of “down” will become an image in the mind of dog. So when the dog trainer say says the word“ Down” in future, using same voice tone and hand signal the dog recall the image and therefore, will be able to obey the command.
Reward and punishment
Several Dog trainings revolve around establishment of some consequences for the behaviors of dog. These consequences are as follows:
- Positive Punishment: You can add something to situation for decreasing the chances of unwanted behavior.
- Positive reinforcement: You can add something to situation for increasing the chances of wanted behavior again.
- Negative reinforcement: You can remove something from situation for increasing the chances of wanted behavior again.
- Negative punishment: You can remove something from situation for decreasing the chances of unwanted behavior.
Rewards for Dog
You can use anything that a dog finds rewarding during dog training ( toys, treats etc ). The more effective the reward or reinforcer the more quickly they will learn.
Dog training and Tricks
Some owners teach their dogs special tricks during dog training. There could be several reasons for that, developing a special relation, providing entertainment etc.
People train their dogs for different purposes; some of them are as follows:
- Herding live stock like sheep
- Assistance for blind people
- Police dogs
- Rescuing purposes
- Individual trainings